medicineandcoffee:

So this happened to my cousin. He climbed a fence to retrieve his football, and on his way back, when he was jumping down from the fence, he sliced his right arm open. What amazes me is how he described it. He said he heard a tear sound and thought he ripped his shirt. He saw his arm and just sat there in shock. He lost control and the sense of two of his fingers.


Haha!!!

(Source: just-for-grins)

scienceyoucanlove:

Kidney Stone Under Microscope

Scanning electron micrograph of a kidney stone (nephrolithiasis). Kidney stones form when salts, minerals and chemicals in the urine (for example calcium, oxalate and uric acid) crystallise and solidify. Small kidney stones are often passed naturally but larger stones can sometimes get lodged in the kidney or other parts of the urinary tract. Size of stone is 2 mm.


Image Credit: Kevin Mackenzie, University of Aberdeen/Wellcome Images

More images from the Wellcome Image Awards 2014: http://is.gd/gR8BuV

from Hashem AL-ghaili

swagtron4000:

sorry sir, we don’t have the facilities for a cat scan, but we can certainly get you a lab report

(Source: bobasprite)

You don’t have to be a brain surgeon to be a valuable person. You become valuable because of the knowledge that you have. And that doesn’t mean you won’t fail sometimes. The important thing is to keep trying.
Benjamin Carson, M.D.

Ortho.

neurosciencestuff:

Memory Accuracy and Strength Can Be Manipulated During Sleep

The sense of smell might seem intuitive, almost something you take for granted. But researchers from NYU Langone Medical Center have found that memory of specific odors depends on the ability of the brain to learn, process and recall accurately and effectively during slow-wave sleep — a deep sleep characterized by slow brain waves.

The sense of smell is one of the first things to fail in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and schizophrenia. Indeed, down the road, if more can be learned from better understanding of how the brain processes odors, researchers believe it could lead to novel therapies that target specific neurons in the brain, perhaps enhancing memory consolidation and memory accuracy.

Reporting in the Journal of Neuroscience online April 9, researchers in the lab of Donald A. Wilson, PhD, a professor in the departments of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Neuroscience and Physiology at NYU Langone, and a research scientist at the NYU-affiliated Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, showed in experiments with rats that odor memory was strengthened when odors sensed the previous day were replayed during sleep. Memories deepened more when odor reinforcement occurred during sleep than when rats were awake.

When the memory of a specific odor learned when the rats were awake was replayed during slow-wave sleep, they achieved a stronger memory for that odor the next day, compared to rats that received no replay, or only received replay when they were awake.

However, when the research team exposed the rats to replay during sleep of an odor pattern that they had not previously learned, the rats had false memories to many different odors. When the research team pharmacologically prevented neurons from communicating to each other during slow-wave sleep, the accuracy of memory of the odor was also impaired.

The rats were initially trained to recognize odors through conditioning. Using electrodes in the olfactory bulb, a part of the brain responsible for perceiving smells, the researchers stimulated different smell perceptions, according to precise patterns of electrical stimulation. Then, by replaying the patterns electrically, they were able to test the effects of slow-wave sleep manipulation.

Replay of learned electrical odors during slow-wave sleep enhanced the memory for those odors. When the learned smells were replayed while the rats were awake, the strength of the memory decreased. Finally, when a false pattern that the rat never learned was incorporated, the rats could not discriminate the smell accurately from the learned odor.

“Our findings confirm the importance of brain activity during sleep for both memory strength and accuracy,” says Dr. Wilson, the study’s senior author. “What we think is happening is that during slow-wave sleep, neurons in the brain communicate with each other, and in doing so, strengthen their connections, permitting storage of specific information.”

Dr. Wilson says these findings are the first to demonstrate that memory accuracy, not just memory strength, is altered during short-wave sleep. In future research, Dr. Wilson and his team hope to examine how sleep disorders affect memory and perception.

psydoctor8:

Famed amnesia case,  K.C. died last week. Having lost both hippocampuses after a motorcycle accident, he was somehow able to hold on to some memories, though “devoid of all context and emotion”… and his identity.  

That’s actually a common theme in the neuroscience of accidents. It’s easy to see the victims of brain damage as reduced or diminished, and they are in some ways. But much of what they feel from moment to moment is exactly what you or I feel, and there’s almost nothing short of death that can make you forget who you are. Amid all the fascinating injuries in neuroscience history, you’ll come across a lot of tales of woe and heartbreak. But there’s an amazing amount of resiliency in the brain, too. [via]

Skeletal Muscle Shapes

(Source: yoyoyogaga)

clulessmedic:

clulessmedic:

Short ACTH stimulation testing, using synthetic ACTH (synacthen). Plasma cortisol measured before and following 250μg IM. Addison’s disease (1° adrenal failure) excluded if second measurement >550nmol/L. This is the gold standard test for adrenal insufficiency. 

Good way to remember this test…synACTHen (it has the clue in the name!). By providing an ACTH stimulus a response should be seen from the adrenals, if no response this shows there is primary failure.